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Archive for the ‘Historical Slant postings’ Category

(Fu)(Fo)(Foo) Dogs/Guardian Lions Of the Far East | Cambodia | Thailand | Burma | Nepal | India | Japan | Malaysia | Bali | Singapore | China

In Gallery Images postings, Historical Slant postings, Home Page posts on June 13, 2009 at 10:26 pm

Please be patient as the images load. All rights belong to the image owner and may not be reproduced for profit without contacting the owner.

Like the last post (the tattoo post), this post also has a lot of images. I realized, as I tried to put together a post about Fu Dogs of other countries, that I didn’t know as much about those countries and their artistic heritage, stylistic interpretations, or even their animal-representation traditions. It didn’t make much sense to me to post images and discuss how this one has too-pointy ears, that one has a far longer tail, and those are missing the elements of a Fu Dog (such as a ball and cub underfoot) – that really doesn’t address the reason behind a countries interpretive license and the creative choices that drove certain stylistic expressions for their own Fu Dogs to have meaning for their local audience.

So, rather than approach the discussion in a negation-emphasis way (pointing out the differences that make these Fu Dogs not like Chinese Fu Dogs), I wanted to present a selection of images of Fu Dogs from those countries, that have them, in order to see the differences between them. Then, I can see the similarities more easily, from artist to artist within a single country, and be better able to research why those similarities are important, significant, and perhaps find their historic precedence. Though I have written in the past that I would use the Chinese Fu Dog as the basis for how far another countries Fu Dog falls from that norm in representation, I now think that method will be detrimental to the appreciation of another, different, representation of a Guardian Lion. Certainly the Fu Dogs I have known and loved have been the Chinese ones, but, that doesn’t mean I can’t grow to know and love another representation of that ideal.

There is always the dilemma of interpreting an artists reasoning behind why certain features are present in their artwork. Is it that they’ve been asked to include/exclude certain features, have a favorite ‘reference’ piece from another culture (or misuse a reference that is incorrectly attributed to some country) – or that they are doing a certain method that they enjoy and are good at and is popular? For example, if you are a sculptor good at carving monkeys might your Fu Dog become more monkey-like? If your purchasing audience are more familiar with a particular animal then wouldn’t it make sense to have subtle feature references to that animal in your work so that they might feel more comfortable with a mythic history you might spin about the piece – so that a lion might take on the aspects of, say, a dog (or an alligator)?

The following images have come from many places across the internet, from many countries across the globe, and I’d like to proffer my greatest and most sincere gratitude to the image owners who so posted their images. I have provided, for nearly every image, a link to that image holders internet presence and recommend to all visitors that if you find the image intriguing then please visit the accompanying link. If an image has been placed under the incorrect country heading then please let me know. As you will find, not every single one of the images presented are of a countries Guardian Lion interpretation (the vast vast majority are though) – some are specifically included to show what may be a countries original guardian creature of myth (like a naga: The snake or dragon, a creature of myth and legend. In Southeast Asia, nagas take on many roles) and how such a creature may have influenced their Fu Dog presentation. And some are included just because I liked them a lot.

What should be kept in mind during browsing the following images is that these representations are for Guardian Lions, and not perhaps for a specific creature named Fu Dog. A Fu Dog is a Guardian Lion certainly, and as such it does share a heritage with these creatures. Regardless the name (chinthe: A lion-like creature that guards the entranceways to temples, chimera, etc.), these creatures are from the same history and deserve some appreciation. I’ll make small notes for each image when I think it needed. I’ll refer to these guardian creatures all, as Fu Dogs, even though they may more fit the term Guardian Lion. Enjoy! Oh, all images will open in a new window and I think I’ve got it figured out so that they open at their larger size too.

 

Cambodia

cambodiahttp://www.art-and-archaeology.com/seasia/mandalay/mm03.html This Fu Dog is nearly 6 foot tall!

 

cambodiafudog5http://www.worldisround.com/articles/340169/photo8.html The Fu Dog is on the left hand side.

 

cambodiafudog4 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beast_Sculpture-angkor.jpg

 

cambodiafudog3http://travel.webshots.com/photo/2100754090089153205vopIrC

 

cambodiafudog2 http://www.angkor-traveltips.com/lolei.htm

 

fu statuehttp://travel.webshots.com/photo/2761714040089153205McyKEf

 

lion2vihear http://www.earthportals.com/Portal_Messenger/stonesinsky8.html

 

lionstairvihear http://www.earthportals.com/Portal_Messenger/stonesinsky8.html

 

museum cambodian http://chinahistoryforum.com/lofiversion/index.php/t29343.html View one.

 

museum cambodian2http://www.flickr.com/photos/70323761@N00/1673248313 view two.

 

http://andybrouwer.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html

 

http://andybrouwer.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html Almost looks like a crocodile snout.

 

http://andybrouwer.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html Little bit of an elephant nose happening here.

 

http://andybrouwer.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html

 

  http://andybrouwer.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html

 

0602 http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/seasia/angkor/pko/pk03.html 

 

0536 http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/seasia/ppenh/wp01.html On the stairs and the roof – lots of Fu Dogs.

 

 

Thailand

wat benjamaborpit bangkok thailandhttp://staff.jccc.net/Thoare/buddhism_in_thailand.htm

 

 thailand fudog6 http://www.edragonu.ro/trip-to-thailand-day-1/

 

fudragonhttp://www.edragonu.ro/trip-to-thailand-day-1/ Is that a mohawk?

 

fusheep http://www.edragonu.ro/trip-to-thailand-day-1/ This looks like a sheep in Fu Dog clothing – I like it.

 

thailand fudog http://www.chiangmai-traveltips.com/wat-phan-tao.htm

 

859610568_89f8f910a0http://www.bootsintheoven.com/boots_in_the_oven/2007/07/index.html This image is a ‘distant’ view that has a close-up of the Fu Dogs on the walls, below.

 

859610250_2d8200dd60http://www.bootsintheoven.com/boots_in_the_oven/2007/07/index.html I’ve never seen a Fu Dog that behaved as a lizard, clinging to a wall; this is truly unique.

 

thaidragon http://www.pbase.com/scubidoo/image/27100396 This is one of those creatures that is not specifically a Fu Dog, it just looks very cool, has a claw on a ball, and is guarding an entrance – close enough for me!

 

 foo

 

wat_pho_doorway_bangkokhttp://www.longsstrangetrip.com/wat_pho_doorway_bangkok.JPG

 

su0390 http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/seasia/chiangmai/cm02.html This is another image that isn’t Fu Dogs, not in the least. I include it just to show that Guardian Creatures of different cultures take different, exciting, forms.

 

 

 

Myanmar / Burma

burma6892017-mdhttp://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=6892017&size=lg Note the Fu Dog in the corner of the picture.

 

6892020-lghttp://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=6892020 This image I’ve seen a couple of times, not the Fu Dog but the idea of the animal at the corner of a building – if you view it from the left it looks correct, if you view if from the right it looks correct – head on it looks a little splayed, but, still good.

 

myanmar73563567_lqnwiMU1 http://www.pbase.com/taboo5/mandalay_myanmar_general_photos

 

myanmar http://www.pbase.com/taboo5/mandalay_myanmar_general_photos

 

Ps18http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

Ps19 http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

Ps09 http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm Big Fu Dog!

 

Ps05 http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

Ps06http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

ux29 http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

Ps08 http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

Ps07http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/cooler/Chapter_3/Part2/pagan_period_2.htm

 

myanmar500099447PRdlRH_fs http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1500099447047274901PRdlRH

 

fu monkey http://www.pbase.com/spoonbender/image/72959727 This artist may have been more comfortable representing an animal other than a Fu Dog, I think.

 

72959820_eWcYOMeE_011207more_19 http://www.pbase.com/spoonbender/image/72959820

 

72959802_s96Y03Ym_011207more_1http://www.pbase.com/spoonbender/image/72959802

 

72959716_HGaU0zBH_010207bagan_16http://www.pbase.com/spoonbender/image/72959716

 

72959655_cHJzCHuS_010107bagan_22   http://www.pbase.com/spoonbender/image/72959655

 

d02 http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/seasia/mandalay/km01.html

 

0269 http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/seasia/mtpopa/mp02.html Just to show that not only Fu Dogs were Guardian ‘Lions’!

 

 

Kathmandu / Nepal

160038526PRJBKi_fshttp://outdoors.webshots.com/photo/1160038526057134311PRJBKi

 

svayambhunath_smhttp://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/nepal

 

templelions_smhttp://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/nepal

 

 1170275-guardian-lion-statue-in-Patan-0 http://www.travelblog.org/Asia/Nepal/blog-160895.html

 

temple_guards http://www.longsstrangetrip.com/temple_guards.JPG

 

temple_doorway_and_steps http://www.longsstrangetrip.com/temple_doorway_and_steps.JPG I think these are ‘wrapped’ Fu Dogs, but I’m not certain.

 

temple lionshttp://eagersnap.blogspot.com/2007/05/guardian-lions-of-kathmandu.html Colorful!

 

Red Door Lionshttp://eagersnap.blogspot.com/2007/05/guardian-lions-of-kathmandu.html

 

Colourful Lion http://eagersnap.blogspot.com/2007/05/guardian-lions-of-kathmandu.html

 

golden lions http://eagersnap.blogspot.com/2007/05/guardian-lions-of-kathmandu.html

 

belovedgods http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/nepal

 

 

India

india vyalihttp://www.siliconintelligence.com/people/binu/images/orissa/konark/konark.html This is not a Fu Dog but it does have the elephantine snout that I have noticed on several other countries’ Fu Dogs.

 

india singlehttp://www.siliconintelligence.com/people/binu/images/orissa/konark/konark.html Interesting.

 

india pair http://www.siliconintelligence.com/people/binu/images/orissa/konark/konark.html I don’t get it, but, interesting Fu Dogs.

 

tamil nadu s indiahttp://chinahistoryforum.com/lofiversion/index.php/t29343.html

 

column fu doghttp://www.flickr.com/photos/50863590@N00/2312684736/

 

mahabalipuram http://www.flickr.com/photos/lkamala/sets/72157603969378173/

 

 

Unknown location

These are unknown in that I don’t know the web address from which they came. Some do look Japanese, some look like another country or other – I didn’t want to make that guess though. If you know the country please let me know.

fu dog2 http://moelwin999.wordpress.com/photos-by-me/

 

CHIP%20AND%20BELLE%20FOO%20DOG%20C_MAI

 

 2295833096_f828250ce7

 

 fe63_1

 

 templedog_02

 

 6-StoneFooDog

 

 memorial_12_bg_053004

 

 2118248-Foo-Dog-1-0

 

 loose-ball

 

 FooDogboygirl

 

 2118249-Foo-Dog-2-0

 

 

Japan

guardians of the gods_0001 bloghttp://windbagandthunder.blogspot.com/2008/07/lions-and-tigers-and-bears.html Scary.

 

guardians of the gods_0002 bloghttp://windbagandthunder.blogspot.com/2008/07/lions-and-tigers-and-bears.html I looked at this for a long time – it is hard to decipher. Very intriguing.

 

japanfu dog1http://travel.webshots.com/photo/2143941480095172172ToiEuS

 

1551896614_a5af829346 http://www.flickr.com/photos/mtyto/1551896614/in/set-72057594097711508/ Open Mouth.

 

1551025611_19c2d10edb_mhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mtyto/1551025611/ Close Mouth.

 

fu roof creature http://tanuki.org.uk/okinawa.html

 

japanese fu doghttp://www.nihonsun.com/2009/03/04/shishi-the-guardian-lion/

 

Fo_koerad 

Malaysia

http://www.pbase.com/tsechien/a_few_pictures_from_where_i_live

 

 

Balinese

fu stool http://hd2o.tv/deep/index.php?main_page=page&id=7&chapter=50

 

 

Singapore

fu classic http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Imperial_guardian_lion_-_Ngee_Ann_City_-_Singapore_(gabbe).jpg

 

 

 

China

fu doghttp://www.fotothing.com/DragonSpeed/photo/2bd3bce07a4aa6fdf519b75264f28d4f/

 

chimera dog http://chinahistoryforum.com/lofiversion/index.php/t29343.html 

 

 

28022http://fr.cinoa.org/index.pl?id=21816;isa=Metadot::SystemApp::AntiqueSearch;op=detail;image_id=28022

 

27909http://fr.cinoa.org/index.pl?id=21816;isa=Metadot::SystemApp::AntiqueSearch;op=detail;image_id=27909

Bell | Tassel | Ribbon | Harness | Mane | Expression | Posture

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings on April 5, 2009 at 12:54 pm

This is the fourth (and last) of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). In looking at a Fu Dog statue, there are several items that come and go, that change oftentimes depending on the Fu Dog being looked at – whether the Fu Dog has a bell (or bells) around its neck. Many times there will be just one, but sometimes a whole ring. Then again, sometimes the bell is paired, or even replaced, with a tassel (or tassels). Depending on the Fu Dog, these items might be attached to a ribbon that is winding around the Fu Dogs head or mouth (the ribbon may even wind down to the fu dog’s ball and/or cub), or if not attached to a ribbon, then attached directly to a collar (more formally, a harness, though often the full harness may not be visible) that may or may not have elaborate decorations which the Fu Dog is wearing. Do these items have any meaning, behind the obvious decorative aspect – or are they purely aesthetic, with no meaning beyond what they are and how they are presented? So I looked around, here is what I found. Bear in mind that I am looking for a historical perspective for why these items may be paired with Fu Dogs.

Bells

The following bells are all from here and are shown only to illustrate that Chinese bells have a history that goes farther back than do Fu Dogs:

Warring_States_Bronze_Bell Warring_States_Decorated_Bronze_Bell_2 Han_Dynasty_Bell Song_Dynasty_906--1279AD_Bronze_Bell_1

The following images show a Fu Dog with bell or bells, in order left to right, from here, here, here, and here.

jade single bell stone standcub 1 bell jade 3 bell silver w ball 3 bells

The bells shown on the Fu Dogs are enclosed so a person doesn’t have to ring the bell. I tried to find a tie-in back to the bell as used in Buddhist tradition (which is the original foundation for the Fu Dog, in the form of the Stuppa guardian lion). The symbolic definition of a bell (a Dorje) ringing is enlightenment, an abrupt one that makes a change in human consciousness. Interestingly, which hand the bell is held in makes a subtle difference; the bell in the left hand represents the female aspect of wisdom while in the right male hand represents method – “Together, they represent the union of wisdom and method, or the attainment of enlightenment.” (Reference and quote from here.) I like that there is a left and right interpretation. It allows an easy transition to Yin and Yang harmony and balance, and so, a bell for each Fu Dog. Also, since the ringing symbolic definition takes a left and a right bell (wisdom and method) to create a third greater whole (enlightenment) I can appreciate the possible interpretation of a Fu Dog sculpture having three bells as representing these three ideals. Neat!

As well, I found that bells have a Feng Shui tradition of calm and good energy. This quote, from here, reads: “The sound of wind chimes, like the flow of water, brings the energy of good Chi into our awareness. This gentle sound corrects the negative effects of traffic sounds, harsh noise, and dull noise, and brings balance into our environment. In addition, the healing tones of the chimes release blockages in our bodies, minds, and spirits, bringing a sense of healing and peace into our lives. The sound of chimes reminds us at physical and mental levels to be calm and be well.” The website this quote came from also presents several bells with specific Feng Shui properties, the “Space Clearing” bell, the “Auspicious Energy” bell, the “Safe” bell, and the “Ornate Prosperity Coin” bell. It is therefore quite probable, in my opinion, that some Fu Dogs have bells that are being interpreted in this wholly Feng Shui oriented belief.

 

Tassels

The following hats are ones with tassels. Wouldn’t you know, after years of seeing ancient Chinese paintings of people, all of whom seem to have hats with tassels, now I can’t find one – oh well. The hat pictures are from here, here, here, and here.

800px-Tudor_Bonnet tassel hat 250__1_moratr-board_detail

I did find one resource, here, talking about tassels of the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – A.D. 221) thusly: “Hanging from the official headgear – an elongated morterboard-type hat – tassels made of varying numbers of colored jewels helped to distinguish rank. The hat of the emperor boasted twelve strings of white jade, while prices and dukes arrayed themselves in seven strings of blue jade. Ministers had to make do with 5 jade strings.” Another reference for the Qing Dynasty, here, mentions that tassels must be “of floss silk”, or “the red tassel… must be of cow’s hair” and “ the apex (of the hat) must be adorned with a tassel…” In Buddhism, the tassel is (sometimes) the equivalent of this (here) resource that mentions tassels and flywhisks: “Early Buddhism adopted the white yak-tail flywhisk as an emblem of the Buddha’s sovereignty and compassionate activity, and along with the umbrella it occurs as one of the two earliest Buddhist symbols of protection.”

For Fu Dogs I can see that the inclusion of a tassel could be either interpretation, or both; either a sign for protection or a sign of rank, or both. Only in the last of the following pictures is the tassel in the center (though I have seen some other images like that), and, the third one may be bells or tassels but I chose tassels. The second image is by Barry R Owens. They are from (left to right) here, here, here, and here. (As always on Fu Dog Blog, all images belong to their owners, rights and such reserved by them.)

fudog metal tassel fudog stone tassel harvard bell tassel stone lama_temple_guardian_lion_female

 

Ribbon

The ribbon sometimes seen around a Fu Dog is more mysterious for me. I have found this story, from here, that may explain one reason for it’s appearance. “One story tells of a great lion in heaven, who, like many cats, was curious and playful, always causing mischief. The Jade Emperor was perturbed by this and, due to the lion’s insubordination, had the lion’s head chopped off. He then threw the remains out of heaven, and down to Earth to rot. However, Kwan’Yin, the goddess of mercy, had seen the entire affair, and, feeling sorry for the mischievous lion, descended to Earth in order to help him. She tied his head back onto his body with an enchanted red ribbon. The ribbon, she said, would frighten away evil spirits and keep the lion safe from harm.”

One Buddhist-type reference I found about a ribbon is its use in creating a symbolic device called the Endless Knot; this quote is from here: “Auspicious Drawing-Also known as the Endless Knot, this picture includes a lattice-like drawing with ribbon threads and represents the intersection of religious principles and secular matters. The Auspicious Drawing also symbolizes the joining of wisdom and method, the "inseparability of emptiness", and upon enlightenment, the union of compassion with wisdom.” I like how the last is compatible with the bells definitions mentioned above and could be why sometimes it looks like the bells around a Fu Dogs neck are tied to a ribbon. Another reference, Williams, C.A.S. from the book “Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs” has this to say about a possible ribbon interpretation: the ribbon "may symbolize the bond which Buddhists believe joins beings of all times, countries, religions and even species." The first image may or may not have ribbons dangling from their mouths, and is from here; I picked it because it may be a ribbon that is working as a harness. The second, having the scrolling ribbon, is from here. The third is from here; yes the red ribbon is cute, but you can just make out the carving of a ribbon running along the leg too!

bronze-foo-dogs gold pair ribbon ribbon stone

 

Harness

The harness, as seen and briefly mentioned above, sometimes can be seen or interpreted to be a ribbon. This reference (here) reads: “… classifies fu lions into two types, a simple unadorned depiction with just a harness and bells around its neck, and a more elaborate depiction with decorative tassels, bells, scarves, profuse manes and body hair. This more elaborate and ornate depiction is a result of Tibetan influence, where the lion was considered the most important Buddhist symbol and the companion of the Buddha. In this case, she claims, the harness around the lions neck symbolizes the "subjugation of strength and courage to the service of the Enlightened One, and to what Buddhists call the Buddha-nature." I’m of a nature to agree with that, and, I haven’t found any other better reference specifically addressing why a Fu Dog would have a harness (or, more seriously, a fancy collar – these harnesses are rarely if ever a harness in the modern sense of the word). There are also Fu Dogs that do not have harnesses – I don’t know what to make of those that are so free-wheeling, do you? The first two images purported to be Fu Dogs have no harness, the next a simple ribbonesque one, the fourth a more complex collar. It’s also easy to view some of the other Fu Dogs in this blog for some examples of thick and involved collar/harnesses. The images below are from, in order left to right, here, here, here and here.

no harness1 simple ribbon harness ivory bell harness

 

Mane

The mane is always open to interpretation, however, I did find several references to a Buddha tale involving snails that has been translated, and is somewhat fitting, for Fu Dog manes. From this one example, here, “According to legend, the snails seeing that the Buddha was sitting so long and still in the sun under the Bodhi tree in meditation gathered upon his head for his protection. Thus, the curls on the head of the Buddha are round and "snail like,” a depiction also used for fu lions.” The tale has some variation but, really, it’s about the Fu Dog’s mane being interpreted, through Buddhist imagery, to be snails.  I like it. I can definitely see it as a possible interpretation for many Fu Dog images. View the above images for examples that have and do not have ‘snail-shell-like’ manes.

 

Expression

The expression, whether open mouthed or not, depends on the interpretation given by the viewer and the intentions of the artist. Like placement of the cub and ball (covered in an earlier post), what is meant by a particular expression may be brought to the piece rather than come from the piece. The common snarling Fu Dog face may be nothing more than an incidental opening of the mouth, not in order to frighten away but in order to pronounce the sacred word ‘au’ or ‘ah.’ In such a case then the opposing Fu Dog would normally have a closed mouth and in tandem pronouncing the sacred word ‘um’ or ‘mmm’ – together producing ‘OM’ (reference here, here, and here). Of course, the artist may intentionally be creating a snarling, vicious, angry Fu Dog in order to scare away and thus guard an entrance and not be following a tradition that produces any reference to a sacred pronunciation. In that, and any case where you do not know the artists intentions, it can be solely up to you how you interpret the facial expression. Images that follow are from here, here, here, here, and here.

expression brown expression green expression white expression pair1 expression stone

 

Posture

Posture for a Fu Dog is usually seated, in a traditional guard position as inherited from the guardian lions from which they descend. Sometimes the posture can be standing, leaning on a large ball, squatted down on the front legs like a playful dog, and just lounging like a lion. This reference, here, has this to say, about which some of the playful postures can be inferred: “The lion does not seem to be so highly thought of by the Chinese as the tiger, probably because it is not so well known to them; and the fact that it is generally represented as playing with a ball, or chu, seems to show that they consider it as belonging more to the mythical class. The lion of the artist is by no means a formidable beast, despite its big eyes and fierce countenance. It is usually depicted with beautifully curled mane, disporting amidst peony flowers, or indulging in kitten like gambols with a sacred gem, as harmless as its pictorial brother in European heraldry, and offering even less resemblance to the real ‘monarch of the forests.” This gives me the idea that those images of Fu Dogs where they are playing are less about guardian images and more about the mythical interpretation given through folklore; a nice split between a utilitarian (Yang) use versus a playful (Yin) use.  The following images, showing various postures, are from here, here, here, and the last two from here. (Yes some of these images are not strictly Chinese in origin.)

pose std guard pose std play pose std play2 pose std crouch pose std growl crouch

 

Summary

So, I hope this post has been interesting and has pointed out how some of the features, postures, and accessories that adorn a Fu Dog may have come into play in ancient Fu Dogs and thus have carried forward into modern times. For the most part, a lot of Buddhist lore and symbols were brought forward, quite naturally since the Fu Dog (as guardian) came into being due to Buddhist influence, and even today are incorporated into Fu Dog imagery for newly created Fu Dogs. Certainly, artists bear the largest responsibility for producing Fu Dogs that fit the aesthetic and audience the piece is intended to please; it is as well their responsibility to mix or not the accessories and features of utilitarian ‘guard’ Fu Dogs and more playful ‘mythical’ Fu Dogs as they will. Thus if you are looking for a Fu Dog or Fu Dog pair for a specific purpose it might be up to you to interpret whether the piece meets your needs, regardless of the artists intentions – the artist may or may not be following a guardian-Buddhist-tradition of Fu Dog representation (fully or even partially), and may be mixing the two out of ignorance or for purposeful reasons. Definitely, if you haven’t, read the last three posts to get a fuller picture of the history of Fu Dogs. I’ll try to summarize all four of these lengthy posts in an upcoming one, as well as placing it in the About page. Thanks for reading!

 

 

 

Fu Dog Placement | Cub Placement | Ball Placement | Yin | Yang | Harmony | Balance

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings on March 19, 2009 at 11:07 pm

This is the third of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). So, why does a Fu Dog’s cub or Fu Dog’s ball get placed under one or the other paw, and, why does the male/female pairing of Fu Dogs get placed on one or the other side of an entrance? In truth these are two very different questions. (Here is a picture of the pair at the gate to the Forbidden City, followed by a pair in front of a restaurant, from here):

Forbidden_City_Imperial_Guardian_Lions kowloonnew

The first question has quite a bit to do with the artist and that artist’s representational desire and freedom. Is the artist free to create a Fu Dog (pair) of his or her own design, or, are the elements of the design already prescribed by the commission on which the artist has been retained? If the elements are already decided upon, then what amount of freedom does the artist have, i.e. if there must be a cub and a ball, one with each of the pair, then has the artist been informed where to place them, and how, and with what detail? Then, subsequently, is the artist knowledgeable in the mythos and lore of the culture of the Fu Dogs being created and is that information going to be utilized in their creation, whether consciously or unconsciously, or is it going to be purposefully ignored or contorted/warped? For example, in the last post mention was made of the cub suckling from the female Fu Dog’s paw; is the artist aware of this myth- will the artist place the paw of the female on the cub’s belly instead of its mouth (as an unknowledgeable act or a purposeful twist)? (From here are a couple of artists carving Fu Dogs; are they following a myth-based subject representation, or just free-wheeling it?):

carvers

The second question, of eventual placement of the finished Fu Dog pair, depends not only upon the artist’s freedom and control of the final product, but also on the knowledge of the owner/possessor of the Fu Dog pair and their willingness to place the pieces according to proscribed lore. Obviously if the artist is creating a Fu Dog pair for commission or for public sale then the placement of them, left or right, may be suggested by the artist to the completed piece’s owner but the artist in no way can control whether the new owner will concur and place them as suggested. If the owner of the Fu Dogs is the artist or if the owner does not know the artist and does not get suggestions on placement, then that owner’s knowledge and willingness and ability to place the pair appropriate to ascribed ‘positioning’, and according to the Fu Dogs as designed and in hand, becomes paramount. (In this photo, would this person be able to guide you in suggested Fu Dog placement, from here):

fudogforsalemarket

Alright, with the ‘free will’ discussion dispatched, let’s get down to what I’ve learned of Fu Dog Cub and Ball placement first (followed by placement of the male and female Fu Dogs as a pair). This post is definitely built upon information presented in the first of these four posts as well as the second (the post previous to this one) so please click on their respective links if you’d like to read them now. I think, once again, the early evolution of where to place a Fu Dog cub or ball is rooted in the harmony and balance, as expressed and embraced by the Chinese of those eras, of Yin and Yang. Considering a knowledgeable artist, very well aware of Yin and Yang methodology in representation, who is choosing to follow said methodology (whether by commission instruction or their own interests), a decision does have to be finalized for either the cub or the ball: which one is Yin and which one is Yang?

Can the decision be made arbitrarily – yes; however, let’s try to be specific in one example of reasoning that leads to a well-founded choice. In all cases I have so far found, femaleness and femininity is Yin, maleness and masculinity is Yang. Such an early society valued male children above female ones, so, the cub should be interpreted as Male/Yang which therefore forces the definition of “Female/Yin” upon the cub’s ‘parent’ Fu Dog (maintaining harmony and balance of Yin and Yang), and, thus, the opposite Fu Dog, now identifiable as a Male Fu Dog, must have a Yin ball (necessary to keep harmony – one side has large Yin and small Yang so the other must balance and have large Yang and small Yin). Part 1 done, now for Part 2; which paw? The nuances of interpretation now play a tremendous role in this next decision and necessitates a discussion of placement of the female-and-cub Fu Dog and the male-and-ball Fu Dog to either side of an entrance (what is fantastic about the simplicity of Yin and Yang is its complexity – another example of the ‘one has the seed of the other’ concept). I have read (and now cannot find the reference – I’ll keep looking) that the cub and the ball should be on the inside edges of either side of the doorway that the Fu Dogs are placed to guard; this keeps the evil out and the good in (if reversed, if the cub and ball are on the outside paw of the Fu Dogs, then the Fu Dogs cannot effectively guard the entrance since their attention is away from the door). So, if the Male Fu Dog is placed to the right of the door (as you are facing the door, outside looking in) then the ball should be under the Fu Dog’s right paw and the Female should be placed to the left of the door with the cub underneath its left paw. This would be a single possible example, completed. (Here is an image that contradicts this, just to show I don’t have all the answers, followed by an image set as described, with a close up of the Female Fu Dog, from here):

gatepair - ehh pairgate-small pairgate-female

Remember, in the last post, that there was some conflict in designating left or right as either Yin or Yang? Here is the best description I’ve found of how variably the idea of Yin and Yang being either Left or Right, can be presented, validly: “…your weight should be constantly variable but not completely one sided, i.e., when the right foot is forward and your weight is on that foot, there should be a distribution of 70% of weight on that foot, at that point your right foot is termed yang and opposingly your left foot will be 30% weighted and termed Yin.  Now try standing in this stance; one foot in front of the other and feel what I’m talking about, now transfer your weight from your right foot to your left foot, you now have a yang left foot and conversely a yin right foot.”  This can, perhaps, come into play with the placement of the Male and Female Fu Dogs and their cub and ball devices. If left is Yin then it could be acceptable to place the Female Fu Dog on the left since the Female is Yin (and thus the Male on the right – which is what we’ve done with the above example). However, it could be another, proper, consideration to place the male on the left (remembering to place the ball now underneath his left foot – at the inside edge of the entry) so that there is strong Yang on the Yin side, for harmony (and vice versus for the Female Fu dog). As well, this site here, provides this interesting quote that we can apply toward such a placement scenario: “Although it is correct to see yin as feminine and yang as masculine, everything in the world is really a mixture of the two, which means that female beings may actually be mostly yang and male beings may actually be mostly yin. Because of that, things that we might expect to be female or male because they clearly represent yin or yang, may turn out to be the opposite instead.” So, per the quote, perhaps the Male Fu Dog on the left is properly ‘more Yin’ – consequently the ball could then be considered Yin, as above, or, to harmonize with a more Yin Male, the ball could be a Yang device (which is done quite often). (Below is another image, from here, that has the odd Fu Dog placement ‘between’ a pair of double doors – are the Fu Dogs protecting the center person/image?)"

pair-dualdoor

Is that the only interpretation? Of course not; the female and the cub could be considered a single entire entity, all Yin, and the male and the ball similarly could be considered together as a single Yang. In such a case it wouldn’t matter, in terms of left or right for the Fu Dog, which paw the cub or ball was underneath; what might matter more is the direction the door faces on which either side they might be placed and how that direction corresponds to Yin and Yang for entrance and exit and best effect for balance and harmony. For example, if the entry faces North (the Yin Direction) and walking into the structure (movement ‘in’ can be considered a Yin movement, here) then the Fu Dogs may need to both take on more Yang devices, so, in this case, the ball may be Yang as well as the cub as well as the Male and Female Fu Dogs. Such a discussion of placement and harmony leads toward the Chinese art/science of Feng Shui, which is (defined here as): “Feng Shui ( pronounced fong sway ) is an ancient science based on the belief that everything in the universe is either positive or negative energy. ( Yin and Yang ) This energy is called Chi, and the science/art of Feng Shui is the use and arrangement of positive objects to counteract the negative objects in your environment.” Here is a link having 10 symbols of Feng Shui, listing Fu Dogs as number nine – they may or may not be in a particular order. Incidentally, Feng Shui also places the Male Fu Dog sometimes on the left of the door, sometimes on the right (and the Female vice versus); it just depends on which reference you’re reading. (Here is a feng shui device called a Ba Gua mirror – there are many variations; I chose this one for its central Fu Dog image):

anotherbagua-mirror

Quite honestly, I am enamored of the cycle of Yin turning into Yang and back again, presented here as: “Thus the two opposites of yin and yang do not exist as an entity in a still and unconcerned state. They constantly interact with each other, hence the alteration and development of an object.” Such a realization causes the initial placement of all Fu Dogs to have great meaning – but then, after months or days or years, the cycle of Yin and Yang cause the meanings to change and then change again. Perhaps this change is merely perceptual in nature, that of the viewer, and I’m ok with that. (Here is an image that incorporates the quadrants of the Ba Gua with Yin and Yang ‘flow’):

bagua yinyang

Now, after three posts, the creation of Male and Female Fu Dogs has been presented, the discussion of how and why and what the cub and the ball underfoot means for each Fu Dog, and the interpretation and knowledge necessary for proper balanced, harmonious placement of the pair has been explored (at least one understanding for all the mentioned topics, anyway). Next will come an investigation of the other attributes of the Fu Dog: bells, tassels, curled manes, facial features, postures, and the like.

 

 

 

Fu Dog Ball | Fu Dog Cub | Flower of Life | Milk Paw

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings on March 14, 2009 at 12:37 pm

This is the second of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). After some extending reading, I think the idea of having an object under the paw evolved from the same misconceived idea (entirely separate from the ideas of Yin and Yang, which I’ll get to in a moment). The initial idea revolves around the unknown quantity that was the Asian/Persian Lion – the Chinese had no knowledge of that animal and so, when nothing is understood, strange stories can and do evolve about physical or mystical traits. In this case the myth is that Lions give milk from their paws – why this arose I have no idea.

One reference, here, indicates that the milk has magic properties and the indigenous peoples would leave out yarn balls in the hope that the large cats would play with them and deposit their milk into the yarn which could then be harvested/gathered; for what purpose I can only imagine. Another reference here indicates people would leave out hollow balls with the same hope, that the lions would play with them and leave some milk inside (though how the milk stayed in the ball while it was played with must be one of those unsolved mysteries you hear about).

Here is a picture of the male Fu Dog having a hollow ball (the link is has a great photo-collection of stone lions in the orient; I highly recommend exploring the links in that website):

 qionghai3

From this reference, here, folk legend has it that the female Fu Dog has her paw on her cub because the cub is suckling, is drawing milk from it’s mother’s paw. Pretty cool – it is one of only two references I have found so far that makes such a statement (here is the second); I think it likely true since many many pictures of female Fu Dogs do show the paw and mouth of the cub somehow connected. This connection of milk coming from a Fu Dog’s paw nicely ties together a lot of imagery and has the ‘grass roots’ sensationalism that artists, I think, would connect/resonate with in presenting imagery that would ‘sell’ with the intended audience.

(From the same website as the above image, the female mate of the male Fu Dog image above, with suckling cub):

 qionghai7

Here are a couple of more pictures of both Fu Dogs together, showing the ball and the cub, the first from here, the second from here:

 giltpair stonepair

Of course, it is not always true that the female’s cub is always in the suckling position. I tend towards the belief that these artists are unaware of the folk legend and/or have decided purposefully to present the Fu Dog cub upright – though in some cases even the upright Fu Dog cub looks to be attempting to suckle. However, some artists who know the lore may have ignored the legend, again purposefully, in order to portray a more Yin or Yang aspect of their cultural interpretation, to emphasize meanings behind ideas such as ‘the female protects those of the dwelling’ by having the cub safely underfoot.

Here are some images showing the cub not obviously suckling (the first from here, the second from here):

  not suckling2 not suckling1

These images and the text presented so far merely show the ball and the cub with their ‘parent’ Fu Dog. But what, I want to know, does the ball and the cub represent, beyond the mere folkloric embodiment of taking advantage of the milk coming from the lion’s (Fu Dog’s) paw? Is there more to it than that? I wasn’t certain and am glad I looked – there is a lot of talk about just this representation, what the ball means, what paw it’s under, what the design on the ball represents and what the cub represents, what paw it’s under (as well as where and how to place the pair at some establishment’s entrance, an upcoming post).

The cub is the easier to present (and shorter) so I’ll address it first. As mentioned already above, the main idea behind the cub is the idea of the female Fu Dog ‘protecting those in the dwelling’ or having ‘thriving offspring’ – this is the Yin in which the seed of Yang exists. Such an interpretation is so prevalent that I won’t post a reference. Some on-line references present the cub as a stand in for some Yang oriented device or definition – as the seed of Yang within Yin – suffice it to say, in my opinion, the cub is part of that projection of Yang philosophy. I was unable to find mention of the sex of the cub; my belief is that, since the culture of the time (we’re talking about ancient China) was one of patriarchy where a male child is desired above a female one, the cub is male (most likely). I’ll get to the placement of the cub (left/right paw) at the time I cover placement of the ball of the male Fu Dog (probably in the next post), since they are interconnected.

The ball for the male Fu Dog, on the other hand (or paw, hehheh), is more interesting, and more convoluted, and more involved in its potential meaning and reason. One of my favorite ideas, found here, in defining a lion, says: “The male has a paw on a brocaded ball which represents the jewel of the law, a pearl, or an egg enclosing a cub.” Is the ball perhaps an egg? This could be true because of the common belief that Dragons grew in eggs (here is a great reference beginning, “Dragons were believed to lay eggs …”). One reference in support, here, mentions: “In Chinese legend it is said that the lion was the ninth son of the dragon and was the best employable guard”; so, this myth could be a foundation for such an interpretation of the ball/egg scenario. The following picture is posted, mostly humorously, because the lion is definitely not a Fu Dog, obviously an Asian/Persian Lion, and has his paw on obviously a ball that has no adornment and is very egg-like – it came from here, and I liked it; enjoy:

 lion ball

There are also quite a number (too many to mention really but feel free to do some reading on your own) of interpretations that the ball is a stand in for the earth, for the moon, for power, for treasure, for control over a domain; that the ball is in some fashion an object or idea that is beyond the control of mortal man, but, for the male Fu Dog, is symbolically tamed and thus placed at the disposal of his owner or those he protects and influences. Such varied interpretations lend themselves to a wide array of artistic representations (as is easily seen in many of the images posted above). In some sense the ball could be said to be to be the seed of Yin within Yang in the same way the cub is the seed of Yang within Yin. However, some interpretations project the ball having Yang aspects (I won’t argue, but I do think my projection of the ball as a Yin device is not too far off, on the whole).

The ball, unlike the above brass lion with a smooth egg-like ball, is rarely (in Chinese images) unadorned. Various other countries also put their own markings on the ball, and as I post about the Fu Dog in those countries (having Fu Dogs with balls) I’ll get to those design interpretations. In some Chinese lore, the image on the ball is interpreted to be the ‘flower of life’ which is an artistic representation of overlapping spheres that moves from the egg of life to the seed of life to the flower of life proper (the following images, in order left to right, from egg, to seed, to flower, are from here):

    eggoflifeseedfolife flowerof life

There is also, on the web, lots of resources for the patterns above, and not at all exclusive to China (in fact that is one of the debates; it’s origins are obscured). Of interest to me is the tremendous number of male Fu Dog paws that are placed on a ball that have a pattern which is, if not explicitly exactly one of the above, as closely similar to one of the above patterns as can be achieved in the medium and size that the piece is created – or – which includes an aspect of the overall pattern. Such occurrences seems to be more than coincidence can explain. One interesting referece page, here, approaches the patterning on the ball through its mathematical slant, per: “The aim of this paper is to survey the different ball patterns from the point of view of structural morphology.” Below is the one image from that page.

ball-male

I have tried to share, to date on this blog, images that have a variety of Fu Dog ball patterns – believe me I’ve looked at a lot of images. There are quite a few out there following this above stylization (or abstraction thereof) and so I lean towards believing that many artists, in their efforts to imbue the Fu Dog with as much meaning and depth and relevance as possible for their audience (and to make their own investment in time and effort worthwhile), would most definitely use this reference on the ball. It would add style, panache, mystery, and a winking nod to those ‘in the know’ about the ‘flower.’

It is not mandatory, certainly, for an artist to follow this patterning as a rule (though it does seem to be an ‘understood’) and some artists, whether purposeful or not, present the ball in a manner more to their liking. See the red Fu Dog male pictured above – the ball is practically a ‘sun’ with a blue corona; I do think that the red pair above (having the ‘sitting cub’ and the ‘sun-like’ ball) are more representative of a non-Chinese aesthetic.

So, the previous post dealt with my observations of how/why, from India to China, a pair of non-differentiated Guardian lions became a pair of male and female Guardian Lions. This post presents those objects that give the Fu Dog a male and female aspect, visibly, through use of the ball and the cub, and addresses (even if only my own opinion) one interpretation of how/why each object evolved as well as what each may mean symbolically.

 

 

India | Guardian Lion | Harmony | Balance | Yin | Yang | Fu Dog Pair | Oracle Bones

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings, India-heavy posts on March 12, 2009 at 11:04 pm

This is the first of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). When I wonder about Fu Dogs being traditionally in pairs I think back to their source material and imagery to see if that has always been true. In ancient India, the Guardian Lion is normally presented in pairs of two or more. Any representation of pairs of Guardian Lions usually resulted in lions that were identical – (I specifically am being vague because, well, it is ancient history and what I could find may not be typical if I were living in India, for example). However, the Guardian Lions in ancient India weren’t always presented at doorways – per the Stupa gateways pictured earlier, as well as this one below showing four Guardian lions on each support (similar in timeframe to the “Lion Capital from Sarnath” I posted about earlier in the India post)(please let me know if you know it’s location):

stupa gate

Another good example of Guardian Lions in India is this picture taken by Michael Hudson showing four of them guarding a central ‘something’ – it probably is a treasure of Buddha or the like; forgive me for not knowing, and let me know if you do. This image is showing the Kalisa Temple at Ellora cave and, since I have clipped this image before hearing from him if I could use it here, I may have to remove it if he objects – but for now:

  33546ba0bf854795a813ba7f08547ace

(I really like the image.) What I’m getting at with the above is that the Guardian Lion as presented in ancient India did not have accessories, nor was there the need to present an obvious pairing of male and female. There is no ball, no cub, no defining information whether the Guardian Lion presented is male or female (but if I could see them in person maybe there is genitalia). The presentation of the ancestors of Fu Dogs is not the male/female presentation that evolved in Chinese cultural presentations. It seems like such a natural thing, to have two identical Guardian Lions standing watch on the left and right sides of a doorway – what forces compelled early artists to create this ‘schism’ and present a male Fu Dog image and a female Fu Dog image?

 

This led me to look into Chinese culture for any reasons I could discover behind having a pair of Fu Dogs, male and female. I found that the ancient Chinese had a penchant for balanced interpretations through the principle of Yin and Yang. This give and take, the cycle that produces balance and harmony, requires two participants, complementary to be sure, and opposite. These principles and ideas, even if then only in their infancy, can be dated back to inscriptions made on “oracle bones” (reference here, a fantastic yin yang source) from the 14th century B.C. The below picture, from here, is a sample of oracle bones:

ichineg001p1 

 

(From a conversation thread here about the origins of yin yang): “I seem to remember that the yin-yang symbol appears on bronzes of the Shang dynasty—perhaps earlier as an artistic motif on pottery. At any rate, it considerably antedates the Tang or Song eras”– that’s long before Fu Dogs. Yin yang has since evolved a famous image (which may have been the result of the Chinese characters for correspondence, a fish and a bird, intertwining (same reference as the last quote):(This following image is from the first referenced page)

 untitled

 

The overall precept of Yin and Yang (quoted from here – an explanation of how each ‘principle’ is cyclic in nature, one turning into it’s opposite and back again) “… represent all the opposite principles one finds in the universe. Under yang are the principles of maleness, the sun, creation, heat, light, Heaven, dominance, and so on, and under yin are the principles of femaleness, the moon, completion, cold, darkness, material forms, submission, and so on.” From here is a wonderfully rich resource on Yin and Yang, where the following images came from (please visit them):

yinyangday yinyanqualities yinyanqualities2

 

So, by the time Fu Dogs made their advent into Chinese culture (via an imported religion and an animal that didn’t exist in China), the ideas of balance and harmony were already well developed and in play. It makes perfect sense, and I’ll say is reasonable, that they would interpret the Guardian Lion, when presented as a pair that are guarding some edifice opening, as one lion being yin and one being yang – thus one male and the other female. (I really spent some time reading about yin and yang history; it’s fascinating stuff, really! It’s a shame I didn’t reference all the items I read.)

I admit, I’m making a jump intellectually in ascribing the Chinese fascination/philosophy with Yin Yang and balance to the appearance of male and female Fu Dog pairs. I didn’t really find that said anywhere explicitly, but, part of looking up this stuff is making just that kind of association, so, I’m taking that liberty. The purpose here was to try to expose (for my own curiosity and knowledge) one manner in which Fu Dogs could have become differentiated, become male and female, as they traveled and were interpreted and stylized by their adoptive civilizations.

There are also cultures other than the Chinese (and sometimes even the Chinese) who do not seem to find it necessary to follow the male/female pairing notion (and those cultures will have their own post at some future date, most hopefully). For example, one website, here, in presenting a ‘Peking version’ of Fu Dogs, reads: “The Peking version represent the same larger statues found in China in the town square of Beijing. They are each shown frolicking with a ball or “chu” – This is the image (with the referenced pairing to the right):

  FooDogStatuary FooDog2

These two playful Fu Dogs above are not obviously male and female, so, the idea that an artist would only present Fu Dogs as a male/female pair isn’t exclusive; two “apparently same-sex” Fu Dogs can be presented in some settings – however they are always mirror images of each other. In fact it is rarely obvious, when Fu Dogs are presented in pairs, which one might be the male and which one might be the female (unless, as an upcoming post presents and explores, one is imaged with a cub or other signifying object or pose). If a person is well versed in yin and yang understanding, the placement of the Fu Dogs may shed some light on which might be the male or female of the pair – but only if the person placing the pair is also well versed in yin and yang (and this placement issue is also presented in an upcoming post).

 

This posting does not preclude a future post dealing with the phenomenon of ‘single’ Fu Dog entities and what they may mean and embody to those who produce and adore them. If these following Fu Dog images had a mirror image mate (which I could easily create by copying and flipping the pictures, but I won’t since these images were found as ‘solo’ Fu Dog images) would you be confidently able to say which was male or female, whether presenting two even demands that one be male and one be female? Being only a single Fu Dog, is it important to know if that single Fu Dog is male or female? The images came from, in order, here, here, and here.

HG130697 set-2-image110