Archive for March, 2009|Monthly archive page

Fu Dog Placement | Cub Placement | Ball Placement | Yin | Yang | Harmony | Balance

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings on March 19, 2009 at 11:07 pm

This is the third of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). So, why does a Fu Dog’s cub or Fu Dog’s ball get placed under one or the other paw, and, why does the male/female pairing of Fu Dogs get placed on one or the other side of an entrance? In truth these are two very different questions. (Here is a picture of the pair at the gate to the Forbidden City, followed by a pair in front of a restaurant, from here):

Forbidden_City_Imperial_Guardian_Lions kowloonnew

The first question has quite a bit to do with the artist and that artist’s representational desire and freedom. Is the artist free to create a Fu Dog (pair) of his or her own design, or, are the elements of the design already prescribed by the commission on which the artist has been retained? If the elements are already decided upon, then what amount of freedom does the artist have, i.e. if there must be a cub and a ball, one with each of the pair, then has the artist been informed where to place them, and how, and with what detail? Then, subsequently, is the artist knowledgeable in the mythos and lore of the culture of the Fu Dogs being created and is that information going to be utilized in their creation, whether consciously or unconsciously, or is it going to be purposefully ignored or contorted/warped? For example, in the last post mention was made of the cub suckling from the female Fu Dog’s paw; is the artist aware of this myth- will the artist place the paw of the female on the cub’s belly instead of its mouth (as an unknowledgeable act or a purposeful twist)? (From here are a couple of artists carving Fu Dogs; are they following a myth-based subject representation, or just free-wheeling it?):


The second question, of eventual placement of the finished Fu Dog pair, depends not only upon the artist’s freedom and control of the final product, but also on the knowledge of the owner/possessor of the Fu Dog pair and their willingness to place the pieces according to proscribed lore. Obviously if the artist is creating a Fu Dog pair for commission or for public sale then the placement of them, left or right, may be suggested by the artist to the completed piece’s owner but the artist in no way can control whether the new owner will concur and place them as suggested. If the owner of the Fu Dogs is the artist or if the owner does not know the artist and does not get suggestions on placement, then that owner’s knowledge and willingness and ability to place the pair appropriate to ascribed ‘positioning’, and according to the Fu Dogs as designed and in hand, becomes paramount. (In this photo, would this person be able to guide you in suggested Fu Dog placement, from here):


Alright, with the ‘free will’ discussion dispatched, let’s get down to what I’ve learned of Fu Dog Cub and Ball placement first (followed by placement of the male and female Fu Dogs as a pair). This post is definitely built upon information presented in the first of these four posts as well as the second (the post previous to this one) so please click on their respective links if you’d like to read them now. I think, once again, the early evolution of where to place a Fu Dog cub or ball is rooted in the harmony and balance, as expressed and embraced by the Chinese of those eras, of Yin and Yang. Considering a knowledgeable artist, very well aware of Yin and Yang methodology in representation, who is choosing to follow said methodology (whether by commission instruction or their own interests), a decision does have to be finalized for either the cub or the ball: which one is Yin and which one is Yang?

Can the decision be made arbitrarily – yes; however, let’s try to be specific in one example of reasoning that leads to a well-founded choice. In all cases I have so far found, femaleness and femininity is Yin, maleness and masculinity is Yang. Such an early society valued male children above female ones, so, the cub should be interpreted as Male/Yang which therefore forces the definition of “Female/Yin” upon the cub’s ‘parent’ Fu Dog (maintaining harmony and balance of Yin and Yang), and, thus, the opposite Fu Dog, now identifiable as a Male Fu Dog, must have a Yin ball (necessary to keep harmony – one side has large Yin and small Yang so the other must balance and have large Yang and small Yin). Part 1 done, now for Part 2; which paw? The nuances of interpretation now play a tremendous role in this next decision and necessitates a discussion of placement of the female-and-cub Fu Dog and the male-and-ball Fu Dog to either side of an entrance (what is fantastic about the simplicity of Yin and Yang is its complexity – another example of the ‘one has the seed of the other’ concept). I have read (and now cannot find the reference – I’ll keep looking) that the cub and the ball should be on the inside edges of either side of the doorway that the Fu Dogs are placed to guard; this keeps the evil out and the good in (if reversed, if the cub and ball are on the outside paw of the Fu Dogs, then the Fu Dogs cannot effectively guard the entrance since their attention is away from the door). So, if the Male Fu Dog is placed to the right of the door (as you are facing the door, outside looking in) then the ball should be under the Fu Dog’s right paw and the Female should be placed to the left of the door with the cub underneath its left paw. This would be a single possible example, completed. (Here is an image that contradicts this, just to show I don’t have all the answers, followed by an image set as described, with a close up of the Female Fu Dog, from here):

gatepair - ehh pairgate-small pairgate-female

Remember, in the last post, that there was some conflict in designating left or right as either Yin or Yang? Here is the best description I’ve found of how variably the idea of Yin and Yang being either Left or Right, can be presented, validly: “…your weight should be constantly variable but not completely one sided, i.e., when the right foot is forward and your weight is on that foot, there should be a distribution of 70% of weight on that foot, at that point your right foot is termed yang and opposingly your left foot will be 30% weighted and termed Yin.  Now try standing in this stance; one foot in front of the other and feel what I’m talking about, now transfer your weight from your right foot to your left foot, you now have a yang left foot and conversely a yin right foot.”  This can, perhaps, come into play with the placement of the Male and Female Fu Dogs and their cub and ball devices. If left is Yin then it could be acceptable to place the Female Fu Dog on the left since the Female is Yin (and thus the Male on the right – which is what we’ve done with the above example). However, it could be another, proper, consideration to place the male on the left (remembering to place the ball now underneath his left foot – at the inside edge of the entry) so that there is strong Yang on the Yin side, for harmony (and vice versus for the Female Fu dog). As well, this site here, provides this interesting quote that we can apply toward such a placement scenario: “Although it is correct to see yin as feminine and yang as masculine, everything in the world is really a mixture of the two, which means that female beings may actually be mostly yang and male beings may actually be mostly yin. Because of that, things that we might expect to be female or male because they clearly represent yin or yang, may turn out to be the opposite instead.” So, per the quote, perhaps the Male Fu Dog on the left is properly ‘more Yin’ – consequently the ball could then be considered Yin, as above, or, to harmonize with a more Yin Male, the ball could be a Yang device (which is done quite often). (Below is another image, from here, that has the odd Fu Dog placement ‘between’ a pair of double doors – are the Fu Dogs protecting the center person/image?)"


Is that the only interpretation? Of course not; the female and the cub could be considered a single entire entity, all Yin, and the male and the ball similarly could be considered together as a single Yang. In such a case it wouldn’t matter, in terms of left or right for the Fu Dog, which paw the cub or ball was underneath; what might matter more is the direction the door faces on which either side they might be placed and how that direction corresponds to Yin and Yang for entrance and exit and best effect for balance and harmony. For example, if the entry faces North (the Yin Direction) and walking into the structure (movement ‘in’ can be considered a Yin movement, here) then the Fu Dogs may need to both take on more Yang devices, so, in this case, the ball may be Yang as well as the cub as well as the Male and Female Fu Dogs. Such a discussion of placement and harmony leads toward the Chinese art/science of Feng Shui, which is (defined here as): “Feng Shui ( pronounced fong sway ) is an ancient science based on the belief that everything in the universe is either positive or negative energy. ( Yin and Yang ) This energy is called Chi, and the science/art of Feng Shui is the use and arrangement of positive objects to counteract the negative objects in your environment.” Here is a link having 10 symbols of Feng Shui, listing Fu Dogs as number nine – they may or may not be in a particular order. Incidentally, Feng Shui also places the Male Fu Dog sometimes on the left of the door, sometimes on the right (and the Female vice versus); it just depends on which reference you’re reading. (Here is a feng shui device called a Ba Gua mirror – there are many variations; I chose this one for its central Fu Dog image):


Quite honestly, I am enamored of the cycle of Yin turning into Yang and back again, presented here as: “Thus the two opposites of yin and yang do not exist as an entity in a still and unconcerned state. They constantly interact with each other, hence the alteration and development of an object.” Such a realization causes the initial placement of all Fu Dogs to have great meaning – but then, after months or days or years, the cycle of Yin and Yang cause the meanings to change and then change again. Perhaps this change is merely perceptual in nature, that of the viewer, and I’m ok with that. (Here is an image that incorporates the quadrants of the Ba Gua with Yin and Yang ‘flow’):

bagua yinyang

Now, after three posts, the creation of Male and Female Fu Dogs has been presented, the discussion of how and why and what the cub and the ball underfoot means for each Fu Dog, and the interpretation and knowledge necessary for proper balanced, harmonious placement of the pair has been explored (at least one understanding for all the mentioned topics, anyway). Next will come an investigation of the other attributes of the Fu Dog: bells, tassels, curled manes, facial features, postures, and the like.





Fu Dog Ball | Fu Dog Cub | Flower of Life | Milk Paw

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings on March 14, 2009 at 12:37 pm

This is the second of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). After some extending reading, I think the idea of having an object under the paw evolved from the same misconceived idea (entirely separate from the ideas of Yin and Yang, which I’ll get to in a moment). The initial idea revolves around the unknown quantity that was the Asian/Persian Lion – the Chinese had no knowledge of that animal and so, when nothing is understood, strange stories can and do evolve about physical or mystical traits. In this case the myth is that Lions give milk from their paws – why this arose I have no idea.

One reference, here, indicates that the milk has magic properties and the indigenous peoples would leave out yarn balls in the hope that the large cats would play with them and deposit their milk into the yarn which could then be harvested/gathered; for what purpose I can only imagine. Another reference here indicates people would leave out hollow balls with the same hope, that the lions would play with them and leave some milk inside (though how the milk stayed in the ball while it was played with must be one of those unsolved mysteries you hear about).

Here is a picture of the male Fu Dog having a hollow ball (the link is has a great photo-collection of stone lions in the orient; I highly recommend exploring the links in that website):


From this reference, here, folk legend has it that the female Fu Dog has her paw on her cub because the cub is suckling, is drawing milk from it’s mother’s paw. Pretty cool – it is one of only two references I have found so far that makes such a statement (here is the second); I think it likely true since many many pictures of female Fu Dogs do show the paw and mouth of the cub somehow connected. This connection of milk coming from a Fu Dog’s paw nicely ties together a lot of imagery and has the ‘grass roots’ sensationalism that artists, I think, would connect/resonate with in presenting imagery that would ‘sell’ with the intended audience.

(From the same website as the above image, the female mate of the male Fu Dog image above, with suckling cub):


Here are a couple of more pictures of both Fu Dogs together, showing the ball and the cub, the first from here, the second from here:

 giltpair stonepair

Of course, it is not always true that the female’s cub is always in the suckling position. I tend towards the belief that these artists are unaware of the folk legend and/or have decided purposefully to present the Fu Dog cub upright – though in some cases even the upright Fu Dog cub looks to be attempting to suckle. However, some artists who know the lore may have ignored the legend, again purposefully, in order to portray a more Yin or Yang aspect of their cultural interpretation, to emphasize meanings behind ideas such as ‘the female protects those of the dwelling’ by having the cub safely underfoot.

Here are some images showing the cub not obviously suckling (the first from here, the second from here):

  not suckling2 not suckling1

These images and the text presented so far merely show the ball and the cub with their ‘parent’ Fu Dog. But what, I want to know, does the ball and the cub represent, beyond the mere folkloric embodiment of taking advantage of the milk coming from the lion’s (Fu Dog’s) paw? Is there more to it than that? I wasn’t certain and am glad I looked – there is a lot of talk about just this representation, what the ball means, what paw it’s under, what the design on the ball represents and what the cub represents, what paw it’s under (as well as where and how to place the pair at some establishment’s entrance, an upcoming post).

The cub is the easier to present (and shorter) so I’ll address it first. As mentioned already above, the main idea behind the cub is the idea of the female Fu Dog ‘protecting those in the dwelling’ or having ‘thriving offspring’ – this is the Yin in which the seed of Yang exists. Such an interpretation is so prevalent that I won’t post a reference. Some on-line references present the cub as a stand in for some Yang oriented device or definition – as the seed of Yang within Yin – suffice it to say, in my opinion, the cub is part of that projection of Yang philosophy. I was unable to find mention of the sex of the cub; my belief is that, since the culture of the time (we’re talking about ancient China) was one of patriarchy where a male child is desired above a female one, the cub is male (most likely). I’ll get to the placement of the cub (left/right paw) at the time I cover placement of the ball of the male Fu Dog (probably in the next post), since they are interconnected.

The ball for the male Fu Dog, on the other hand (or paw, hehheh), is more interesting, and more convoluted, and more involved in its potential meaning and reason. One of my favorite ideas, found here, in defining a lion, says: “The male has a paw on a brocaded ball which represents the jewel of the law, a pearl, or an egg enclosing a cub.” Is the ball perhaps an egg? This could be true because of the common belief that Dragons grew in eggs (here is a great reference beginning, “Dragons were believed to lay eggs …”). One reference in support, here, mentions: “In Chinese legend it is said that the lion was the ninth son of the dragon and was the best employable guard”; so, this myth could be a foundation for such an interpretation of the ball/egg scenario. The following picture is posted, mostly humorously, because the lion is definitely not a Fu Dog, obviously an Asian/Persian Lion, and has his paw on obviously a ball that has no adornment and is very egg-like – it came from here, and I liked it; enjoy:

 lion ball

There are also quite a number (too many to mention really but feel free to do some reading on your own) of interpretations that the ball is a stand in for the earth, for the moon, for power, for treasure, for control over a domain; that the ball is in some fashion an object or idea that is beyond the control of mortal man, but, for the male Fu Dog, is symbolically tamed and thus placed at the disposal of his owner or those he protects and influences. Such varied interpretations lend themselves to a wide array of artistic representations (as is easily seen in many of the images posted above). In some sense the ball could be said to be to be the seed of Yin within Yang in the same way the cub is the seed of Yang within Yin. However, some interpretations project the ball having Yang aspects (I won’t argue, but I do think my projection of the ball as a Yin device is not too far off, on the whole).

The ball, unlike the above brass lion with a smooth egg-like ball, is rarely (in Chinese images) unadorned. Various other countries also put their own markings on the ball, and as I post about the Fu Dog in those countries (having Fu Dogs with balls) I’ll get to those design interpretations. In some Chinese lore, the image on the ball is interpreted to be the ‘flower of life’ which is an artistic representation of overlapping spheres that moves from the egg of life to the seed of life to the flower of life proper (the following images, in order left to right, from egg, to seed, to flower, are from here):

    eggoflifeseedfolife flowerof life

There is also, on the web, lots of resources for the patterns above, and not at all exclusive to China (in fact that is one of the debates; it’s origins are obscured). Of interest to me is the tremendous number of male Fu Dog paws that are placed on a ball that have a pattern which is, if not explicitly exactly one of the above, as closely similar to one of the above patterns as can be achieved in the medium and size that the piece is created – or – which includes an aspect of the overall pattern. Such occurrences seems to be more than coincidence can explain. One interesting referece page, here, approaches the patterning on the ball through its mathematical slant, per: “The aim of this paper is to survey the different ball patterns from the point of view of structural morphology.” Below is the one image from that page.


I have tried to share, to date on this blog, images that have a variety of Fu Dog ball patterns – believe me I’ve looked at a lot of images. There are quite a few out there following this above stylization (or abstraction thereof) and so I lean towards believing that many artists, in their efforts to imbue the Fu Dog with as much meaning and depth and relevance as possible for their audience (and to make their own investment in time and effort worthwhile), would most definitely use this reference on the ball. It would add style, panache, mystery, and a winking nod to those ‘in the know’ about the ‘flower.’

It is not mandatory, certainly, for an artist to follow this patterning as a rule (though it does seem to be an ‘understood’) and some artists, whether purposeful or not, present the ball in a manner more to their liking. See the red Fu Dog male pictured above – the ball is practically a ‘sun’ with a blue corona; I do think that the red pair above (having the ‘sitting cub’ and the ‘sun-like’ ball) are more representative of a non-Chinese aesthetic.

So, the previous post dealt with my observations of how/why, from India to China, a pair of non-differentiated Guardian lions became a pair of male and female Guardian Lions. This post presents those objects that give the Fu Dog a male and female aspect, visibly, through use of the ball and the cub, and addresses (even if only my own opinion) one interpretation of how/why each object evolved as well as what each may mean symbolically.



India | Guardian Lion | Harmony | Balance | Yin | Yang | Fu Dog Pair | Oracle Bones

In China-heavy posts, Historical Slant postings, India-heavy posts on March 12, 2009 at 11:04 pm

This is the first of four posts whose purpose is discussed here (please read that post for a brief background on why this post covers the content that it does). When I wonder about Fu Dogs being traditionally in pairs I think back to their source material and imagery to see if that has always been true. In ancient India, the Guardian Lion is normally presented in pairs of two or more. Any representation of pairs of Guardian Lions usually resulted in lions that were identical – (I specifically am being vague because, well, it is ancient history and what I could find may not be typical if I were living in India, for example). However, the Guardian Lions in ancient India weren’t always presented at doorways – per the Stupa gateways pictured earlier, as well as this one below showing four Guardian lions on each support (similar in timeframe to the “Lion Capital from Sarnath” I posted about earlier in the India post)(please let me know if you know it’s location):

stupa gate

Another good example of Guardian Lions in India is this picture taken by Michael Hudson showing four of them guarding a central ‘something’ – it probably is a treasure of Buddha or the like; forgive me for not knowing, and let me know if you do. This image is showing the Kalisa Temple at Ellora cave and, since I have clipped this image before hearing from him if I could use it here, I may have to remove it if he objects – but for now:


(I really like the image.) What I’m getting at with the above is that the Guardian Lion as presented in ancient India did not have accessories, nor was there the need to present an obvious pairing of male and female. There is no ball, no cub, no defining information whether the Guardian Lion presented is male or female (but if I could see them in person maybe there is genitalia). The presentation of the ancestors of Fu Dogs is not the male/female presentation that evolved in Chinese cultural presentations. It seems like such a natural thing, to have two identical Guardian Lions standing watch on the left and right sides of a doorway – what forces compelled early artists to create this ‘schism’ and present a male Fu Dog image and a female Fu Dog image?


This led me to look into Chinese culture for any reasons I could discover behind having a pair of Fu Dogs, male and female. I found that the ancient Chinese had a penchant for balanced interpretations through the principle of Yin and Yang. This give and take, the cycle that produces balance and harmony, requires two participants, complementary to be sure, and opposite. These principles and ideas, even if then only in their infancy, can be dated back to inscriptions made on “oracle bones” (reference here, a fantastic yin yang source) from the 14th century B.C. The below picture, from here, is a sample of oracle bones:



(From a conversation thread here about the origins of yin yang): “I seem to remember that the yin-yang symbol appears on bronzes of the Shang dynasty—perhaps earlier as an artistic motif on pottery. At any rate, it considerably antedates the Tang or Song eras”– that’s long before Fu Dogs. Yin yang has since evolved a famous image (which may have been the result of the Chinese characters for correspondence, a fish and a bird, intertwining (same reference as the last quote):(This following image is from the first referenced page)



The overall precept of Yin and Yang (quoted from here – an explanation of how each ‘principle’ is cyclic in nature, one turning into it’s opposite and back again) “… represent all the opposite principles one finds in the universe. Under yang are the principles of maleness, the sun, creation, heat, light, Heaven, dominance, and so on, and under yin are the principles of femaleness, the moon, completion, cold, darkness, material forms, submission, and so on.” From here is a wonderfully rich resource on Yin and Yang, where the following images came from (please visit them):

yinyangday yinyanqualities yinyanqualities2


So, by the time Fu Dogs made their advent into Chinese culture (via an imported religion and an animal that didn’t exist in China), the ideas of balance and harmony were already well developed and in play. It makes perfect sense, and I’ll say is reasonable, that they would interpret the Guardian Lion, when presented as a pair that are guarding some edifice opening, as one lion being yin and one being yang – thus one male and the other female. (I really spent some time reading about yin and yang history; it’s fascinating stuff, really! It’s a shame I didn’t reference all the items I read.)

I admit, I’m making a jump intellectually in ascribing the Chinese fascination/philosophy with Yin Yang and balance to the appearance of male and female Fu Dog pairs. I didn’t really find that said anywhere explicitly, but, part of looking up this stuff is making just that kind of association, so, I’m taking that liberty. The purpose here was to try to expose (for my own curiosity and knowledge) one manner in which Fu Dogs could have become differentiated, become male and female, as they traveled and were interpreted and stylized by their adoptive civilizations.

There are also cultures other than the Chinese (and sometimes even the Chinese) who do not seem to find it necessary to follow the male/female pairing notion (and those cultures will have their own post at some future date, most hopefully). For example, one website, here, in presenting a ‘Peking version’ of Fu Dogs, reads: “The Peking version represent the same larger statues found in China in the town square of Beijing. They are each shown frolicking with a ball or “chu” – This is the image (with the referenced pairing to the right):

  FooDogStatuary FooDog2

These two playful Fu Dogs above are not obviously male and female, so, the idea that an artist would only present Fu Dogs as a male/female pair isn’t exclusive; two “apparently same-sex” Fu Dogs can be presented in some settings – however they are always mirror images of each other. In fact it is rarely obvious, when Fu Dogs are presented in pairs, which one might be the male and which one might be the female (unless, as an upcoming post presents and explores, one is imaged with a cub or other signifying object or pose). If a person is well versed in yin and yang understanding, the placement of the Fu Dogs may shed some light on which might be the male or female of the pair – but only if the person placing the pair is also well versed in yin and yang (and this placement issue is also presented in an upcoming post).


This posting does not preclude a future post dealing with the phenomenon of ‘single’ Fu Dog entities and what they may mean and embody to those who produce and adore them. If these following Fu Dog images had a mirror image mate (which I could easily create by copying and flipping the pictures, but I won’t since these images were found as ‘solo’ Fu Dog images) would you be confidently able to say which was male or female, whether presenting two even demands that one be male and one be female? Being only a single Fu Dog, is it important to know if that single Fu Dog is male or female? The images came from, in order, here, here, and here.

HG130697 set-2-image110






Fu Dog | Pair | Ball | Cub | Mane | Bell | Ribbon | Harness | Tassel | Posture | Placement

In Home Page posts on March 11, 2009 at 7:28 pm

Yes, I know I haven’t blogged in a few weeks. (As always the photos herein remain the property of their owners; each photo has a link listed in the text prior to the photo that will take you to the originating pages. Oh, all links open in a new window.)

I’ve been reading and writing about Fu Dogs offline, preparing my upcoming post. After talking with some friends about that upcoming post, the consensus was that the post didn’t need to be a single post (because it is turning out to be a rather lengthy post) but instead should be broken up into at least two posts, if not more. So, I’m going to try to split it into multiple posts, uploaded over the next several days or week.


The topic of the first upcoming post is “Why are there two Fu Dogs, as a standard, and why is one male and one female?” It seems like it’s taken for granted that all Fu Dogs come in pairs so I had to ask for myself to see if there is a deeper meaning. Photos, in order, from here, here, and here – I picked photos that show two Fu Dogs regardless of ‘accessories.’

silverpair pairwood white pair on pedestal with balls


The topic of the second upcoming post is “Why does the female Fu Dogs have a cub under her paw, what does that mean, and why does the male have a ball under his paw and what does that mean?” This, as you can imagine, is a pretty complex topic having not a few interpretations, and, it has some overlap with the previous and next posts. The following photos are from here and here (showing a pretty ball and a pretty cub).



The topic of the third upcoming post is “What is the optimal or traditional placement of the two Fu Dogs and why?” Most of the time you only get the placement of Fu Dogs in a quick, one here, the other there blurb without any consideration to why, so I asked and here’s my answer. The photos showing ‘still in the store’ and thus unplaced Fu Dogs is from here and here.

fu-dogs-front foodog01_big


The topic of the fourth upcoming post is “What do the stylized curls (if present) mean on the Fu Dogs’ mane, is there a meaning behind some of the poses/postures and facial expressions of the male and female Fu Dog, and why do some have a ribbon and/or harness with bells and/or tassels?” I can’t help but want to know if these things have some purpose beyond decoration. The photos above and and the first one below (from here) show great curls, harness, bells, and ribbons. The last picture is by me, showing the ‘lack’ of those aspects.

 fu-dog-wood_0154 02-22-09_1549


There are at least two difficulties in presenting the information like this – one is that the topics do have some overlap – what is the best way to split them apart; and the second is that the topics are Chinese-centric (as best as I can manage, not being Chinese and being in America) and so some of the information that might be known might apply to Korean Fu Dogs or Japanese Fu Dogs or Thai Fu Dogs or Vietnamese Fu Dogs (you get the picture) and not be presented, leaving you wondering why some bit of information isn’t shared that you know is common knowledge. I hope to cover each interpretation, by country, over the course of this blog, so if your favorite feature or cultural representation isn’t yet presented then please be patient.